Cholesterol Efflux and Atheroprotective Effects Video Interview Activity

1.75 AMA PRA Category 1 Credit(s)™
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H. Bryan Brewer, Jr., MD, FNLA

H. Bryan Brewer, Jr., MD, FNLA
Director, Washington Cardiovascular Associates
Senior Research Consultant
Lipoprotein and Atherosclerosis Research
MedStar Research Institute
Washington Hospital Center
Washington, DC

H. Bryan Brewer, Jr., MD, is director of the Washington Cardiovascular Associates and senior research consultant of lipoprotein and atherosclerosis research in the Cardiovascular Research Institute, MedStar Research Institute, Washington Hospital Center in Washington, DC. From 1976 to 2005, he held the position of chief of the Molecular Disease Branch of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) of the NIH in Bethesda, Maryland. 

Dr. Brewer earned his Bachelor of Science from Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland, and his Doctorate of Medicine from Stanford University School of Medicine in Stanford, California. He completed his internship and residency training in internal medicine at Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston, Massachusetts, after which he joined the NHLBI of the NIH in Bethesda, Maryland.

Dr. Brewer's research led to the elucidation of the first published sequences for the human plasma apolipoproteins, the initial determination of the metabolism of the plasma apolipoproteins in normal and hyperlipidemic individuals, as well as the identification of multiple gene defects leading to the genetic dyslipoproteinemias. In addition, he pioneered the use of transgenic mice and rabbits as well as recombinant adenovirus vectors to identify genes that modulate lipoprotein metabolism and the development of atherosclerosis. Most recently, his research has focused on acute HDL therapy employing HDL infusions to decrease atherosclerosis in patients with acute coronary syndrome.

Dr. Brewer has been the recipient of the JD Lane Investigator Award from the Public Health Service; the Heinrich Wieland Prize from the Federal Republic of Germany; and the Public Health Service Commendation, Meritorious Service, and Distinguished Service Medals from the NIH. He has served as a member of the board of the National Cholesterol Education Program, which established treatment guidelines for patients with hyperlipidemia in the United States. He has published more than 400 original reports and 70 reviews and book chapters on the subjects of genetic dyslipoproteinemias, lipoprotein metabolism, and atherosclerosis.

Robert S. Rosenson, MD, FACC, FAHA, FACP, FNLA

Robert S. Rosenson, MD, FACC, FAHA, FACP, FNLA
Director, Cardiometabolic Disorders
Mount Sinai Heart
Professor of Medicine
Mount Sinai School of Medicine
New York, New York

Robert S. Rosenson, MD, FACC, FAHA, FACP, is the director of cardiometabolic disorders at Mount Sinai Heart Institute and professor of medicine at Mount Sinai School of Medicine in New York City. Previously, he was the division chief of endocrinology, diabetes, and metabolism at SUNY Downstate Medical Center in Brooklyn, New York. Prior to his time in New York, Dr. Rosenson was the director of lipoprotein disorders and clinical atherosclerosis research and professor of medicine at the University of Michigan School of Medicine in Ann Arbor as well as an attending physician in the Department of Medicine of the University of Michigan Health System.
Dr. Rosenson earned his medical degree from Tulane University in New Orleans, Louisiana. He then served his residency in medicine at Brigham and Women's Hospital in Boston, Massachusetts. He later completed a fellowship in cardiology at the University of Chicago.
Dr. Rosenson has been involved in numerous grant-supported research investigations studying the effects of lipid-lowering therapy; hypoglycemic therapy; and antihypertensive agents in inflammation, thrombogenesis, and rheology. He has served as principal investigator on a number of National Institutes of Health (NIH)-funded research studies, pharmaceutical-sponsored drug trials, and multicenter studies. He has been an invited speaker at more than 150 national and international association meetings, grand rounds, and symposia. He has authored more than 600 journal articles, book chapters, abstracts, and electronic publications.
Dr. Rosenson is a diplomate of the American Board of Internal Medicine, with a subspecialty in cardiovascular disease; the National Board of Medical Examiners; and the National Lipid Association. He currently serves on a number of committees for professional societies and as a member of the Program Committee and Expert Document Committee for the American College of Cardiology. He is a fellow of the American Heart Association Council on Epidemiology and Prevention, and he is a fellow of the American Heart Association Council on Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology. He has been the recipient of a number of awards and honors, including the Ground-Breaking Doctors Award from Chicago magazine.

W. Sean Davidson, PhD

W. Sean Davidson, PhD
Professor and Director
Center for Lipid and Arteriosclerosis Science
University of Cincinnati
Cincinnati, Ohio

W. Sean Davidson, PhD, is a professor in the Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine at the University of Cincinnati. He is the director of the Center for Lipid and Arteriosclerosis Studies (CLAS) located at UC's Metabolic Diseases Institute. He received his PhD in Biochemistry from the Medical College of Pennsylvania in 1995 and performed a post-doctoral fellowship at the University of Illinois. He is a member of the editorial boards of the Journal of Biological Chemistry and the Journal of Lipid Research, is a fellow of the American Heart Association, an AHA Established Investigator and serves on a variety of regional and national study sections.
Dr. Davidson's research interests center on the structure and function of high density lipoproteins (HDL). A major focus is on the structure/function relationships of human apolipoproteins, particularly apolipoproteins A-I, A-II, and A-IV and their role in the pathology of cardiovascular disease and obesity. The laboratory also has a program on the interactions of human apolipoproteins with cell surface proteins and the subsequent transfer of lipids. In addition, his laboratory uses mass spectrometry to probe the lipoprotein proteome. Recent work includes a novel structure of apolipoprotein A-I in spherical HDL particles, including those isolated from human plasma, a proteomic characterization of human HDL subclasses, and the molecular basis for human apoA-IV lipid binding affinity.

Zahi A. Fayad, PhD

Zahi A. Fayad, PhD
Professor of Radiology and Medicine (Cardiology)
Director, Translational and Molecular Imaging Institute 
Mount Sinai School of Medicine
New York, New York

Zahi A. Fayad, PhD, serves as professor of Radiology and Medicine (Cardiology) at the Mount Sinai School of Medicine. He is the director of the Translational and Molecular Imaging Institute; director and founder of the Eva and Morris Feld Imaging Science Laboratories; and director of Cardiovascular Imaging Research at the Mount Sinai School of Medicine and Mount Sinai Medical Center.
Dr. Fayad's interdisciplinary- and discipline-bridging research - from engineering to biology and from pre-clinical to clinical investigations - has been dedicated to the detection and prevention of cardiovascular disease with many seminal contributions in the field of biomedical imaging. Dr. Fayad is one of the world's leaders in the innovative development and use of multimodality cardiovascular imaging, including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), and positron emission tomography (PET), as well as molecular imaging and nanomedicine to study, prevent, and treat cardiovascular disease. His focus in the past 14 years at Mount Sinai has been on the noninvasive assessment and understanding of atherosclerosis (Sanz and Fayad. Nature. 2008;451:953-957). He holds 12 United States and worldwide patents in the field of imaging and has authored more than 250 peer-reviewed publications, 50 book chapters, and over 400 meeting presentations. Recently, he published in the Lancet (Sept 13, 2011 online) the results of the dal-PLAQUE multicenter clinical trial evaluating atherosclerotic with MRI and FDG-PET and the efficacy and safety of dalcetrapib, a first-in-class CETP modulator. He currently is the principal investigator of 4 federal grants funded by the National Institutes of Health's National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute and National institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering, with a recent large award from NHLBI to support the Program of Excellence in Nanotechnology. In addition, he serves as principal investigator of the Imaging Core of the Mount Sinai National Institute of Health (NIH)/Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSA). Dr. Fayad had been trained at the Johns Hopkins University and at the University of Pennsylvania. From 1996 to 1997, he was junior faculty in the Department of Radiology and the University of Pennsylvania. In 1997, he joined the faculty at Mount Sinai School of Medicine.
Dr. Fayad is past-deputy editor of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine (MRM), past-president of the Society of Atherosclerosis and Prevention (SAIP), fellow of the American Heart Association (AHA), where he served on the National Research Committee and on the Council on Cardiovascular Radiology and Intervention (CVRI). He also is a fellow of the American College of Cardiology (ACC), where he served on the Cardiovascular Collaborative Imaging (CCI) Committee. He is member of the NIH's National Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) Cardiovascular Strategic Planning Working Group on Vascular Disease and Hypertension and is a member of the Foundation of the NIH (FNIH) Biomarkers Consortium. Dr. Fayad is associate editor for the Journal of the American College of Cardiology Imaging (JACC Imaging) and consulting editor for Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology (ATVB). Dr. Fayad is on the editorial boards of the Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance (JCMR), Nature Reviews Cardiology, Atherosclerosis, and Cancer Nanotechnology. He often serves as guest editor for several prestigious journals in the fields of imaging, vascular biology, cardiology, and radiology. He participates regularly in the AHA/ACC writing groups. He is a member of the Medical Imaging (MEDI) study section and ad-hoc member on numerous other study sections, including those from NIH and the National Academy of Science. He is a member of the New York University Program in Computational Biology. He is a past member of the board of trustees of the Society of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance (SCMR) and he is also a past member of the Scientific Program Committee of the International Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine (ISMRM). He also serves on the boards of several national and international scientific boards, committees, and foundations. Dr. Fayad is the recipient of multiple prestigious awards. In 2007, he was given the John Paul II Medal from Krakow, Poland, in recognition for the potential of his work on humankind.
As a teacher and mentor, Dr. Fayad also has been extremely successful. He has trained over 30 postdoctoral fellows, clinical fellows, and students. His trainees have received major awards, fellowships, and positions in academia and industry. In 2008, he received the Outstanding Teacher Award from the ISMRM for his teaching on cardiovascular imaging and molecular imaging. Recently, in 2009 he was awarded the title of Honorary Professor in Nanomedicine at Aarhus University in Denmark.

Daniel J. Rader, MD

Raniel J. Rader, MD
Professor of Medicine
University of Pennsylvania
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Daniel J. Rader, MD, is the Cooper-McClure Professor of Medicine and is Professor of Pathology and Pharmacology at the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine. He is director of the newly created Clinical and Translational Research Center and associate director of Penn's Institute for Translational Medicine and Therapeutics. In addition, he is the director of Preventive Cardiovascular Medicine and Lipid Clinic and the director of the Lipid-Atherosclerosis Research Unit. Dr. Rader's basic research laboratory focuses on genetic and pharmacologic regulation of lipoprotein metabolism and atherosclerosis where he directs a translational research program focusing on human genetics of lipid disorders and atherosclerosis and novel approaches to treatment of dyslipidemia and regression of atherosclerosis. He has a particular interest in HDL metabolism, factors and genes involved in its regulation, the causal nature of the relationship of HDL metabolism to atherosclerosis, and novel approaches to targeting HDL metabolism and reverse cholesterol transport in the treatment, prevention, and regression of atherosclerosis.
Dr. Rader received his undergraduate degree from Lehigh University and his medical degree from the Medical College of Pennsylvania. He completed an internship and residency in internal medicine at Yale-New Haven Hospital, followed by a year as a Chief Resident. In 1988, he began a fellowship in lipid metabolism at the Molecular Disease Branch of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) of the National Institutes of Health and subsequently was appointed to a staff scientist position. He was recruited in 1994 to the University of Pennsylvania.
Dr. Rader is a member of the American Society of Clinical Investigation and the Association of Academic Physicians and is a recipient of a Burroughs Wellcome Fund Clinical Scientist Award in Translational Research, a Doris Duke Charitable Foundation Distinguished Clinical Scientist Award, and a Bristol Myers Squibb "Freedom to Discover" Unrestricted Cardiovascular Research Grant. Dr. Rader is an associate editor of the Journal of Clinical Investigation and an editorial board member of Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology, American Journal of Physiology (Endocrinology and Metabolism), Circulation, Circulation Research, Journal of Lipid Research, and Trends in Molecular Medicine. Dr. Rader has authored over 250 peer-reviewed publications, review articles, and book chapters, including chapters on lipoprotein disorders for Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, Topol's Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine, and Nelson's Textbook of Pediatrics. He is a frequently-invited speaker nationally and internationally on his basic and translational research in lipoprotein metabolism and atherosclerosis.

Alan R. Tall, MD

Alan R. Tall, MD
Tilden Weger Bieler Professor of Medicine
Professor of Physiology and Cellular Biophysics
Director, Division of Molecular Medicine
Columbia University Medical Center
New York, New York

Alan R. Tall, MD, is the Tilden-Weger-Bieler Professor of Medicine, Professor of Physiology and Cellular Biophysics, and head of the Division of Molecular Medicine in the Department of Medicine at Columbia University. He is also the director of Columbia's Specialized Center of Research in Atherosclerosis (SCOR in Atherosclerosis), an NIH-funded program that involves other members of the Molecular Medicine Division as well as other divisions and departments.
His major work has been on the regulation and metabolism of plasma high density lipoproteins (HDL). He discovered mutations in the cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) gene that are associated with reduced LDL and increased HDL levels, leading to the development of CETP inhibitors.
Dr. Tall is involved in studies of the mechanisms of atherogenesis, with emphasis on the use of transgenic mouse models and of human genetic deficiency states that result in lipoprotein disorders. The major themes are plasma lipid transfer proteins, HDL receptors, and use of mouse genomics to map new atherosclerosis susceptibility genes. Recently, Dr. Tall has done research on the ATP binding cassette transporters, ABCA1 and ABCG1, which promote cholesterol efflux from macrophage foam cells and hematopoietic stem cells to apoA-I and HDL, with anti-atherogenic consequences.
1. Review the historical concept of high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-mediated reverse cholesterol transport
2. Discuss the anti-atherosclerotic role of HDL particles
3. Describe molecular systems involved in cholesterol efflux
4. Review the use of animal models and discuss the role of non-invasive imaging in revealing mechanisms of cholesterol efflux