Epidemiology and Nomenclature

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Peter P. Toth, MD, PhD, FNLA*

Peter P. Toth, MD, PhD, FNLA
Director of Preventative Cardiology
CGH Medical Center
Sterling, IL
Professor of Clinical Family and Community Medicine
University of Illinois College of Medicine
Peoria, IL
Professor of Clinical Medicine
Michigan State University College of Osteopathic Medicine
East Lansing, MI

Dr. Toth received his B.A. in Biochemistry from Princeton University and a Ph.D. in Biochemistry from Michigan State University. He graduated from Wayne State University School of Medicine and completed residency training in Family Medicine at the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics. Dr. Toth is a diplomate of the American Board of Family Practice and the American Board of Clinical Lipidology. He is a fellow of the American Academy of Family Physicians, the International College of Angiology, the American Heart Association (Council on Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology), the American College of Chest Physicians, the National Lipid Association, and the American College of Cardiology. He is a member of Alpha Omega Alpha, Sigma Xi, and the American Medical Association. Dr. Toth is a member of the American College of Cardiology Foundation Council on Cardiovascular Disease Prevention and the American Heart Association's Council on Lipoproteins, Lipid Metabolism, and Thrombosis. He has authored and edited 10 textbooks in lipidology, preventive cardiology, and hypertension.

Rachel H. Mackey, PhD, MPH

Rachel H. Mackey, PhD, MPH
Assistant Professor of Epidemiology
University of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public Health
Pittsburgh, PA

Dr. Mackey is an Assistant Professor of Epidemiology at the University of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public Health.  Her expertise is in the measurement, evaluation and interpretation of biomarkers, particularly lipoproteins and cytokines, and non-invasive measures of atherosclerosis and arterial function as indices of cardiovascular risk in large epidemiological studies including CHS, MESA, SWAN, LABS and WHI.  Dr. Mackey graduated from Princeton University before doing her masters and PhD in epidemiology at the University of Pittsburgh.   She is a fellow of the American Heart Association and has served on several national AHA scientific committees. 

Dr. Mackey has first authored two book chapters and has published 39 peer-reviewed articles and two invited articles.   A long-standing research focus is the potential for biological insights from lipoprotein particle concentrations in situations of "lipid paradox," such as among postmenopausal women, metabolic syndrome, extreme obesity and rheumatoid arthritis.   Earlier work showed that lipoproteins might explain absence of CHD reduction in the WHI hormone therapy trial.  More recently, work in MESA suggests that HDL particle concentration may explain some recent paradoxical findings with HDL-C. 
Dr. Mackey is involved in additional studies focused on CHD risk in extreme obesity, rheumatoid arthritis and the elderly.

Richard H. Karas, MD, PhD

Richard H. Karas, MD, PhD
Elias Kent Mendelsohn Professor of Molecular Medicine
Tufts University School of Medicine
Chief Scientific Officer
Executive Director
Molecular Cardiology Research institute
Vice Chairman for Scientific Affairs, Department of Medicine
Director, Preventive Cardiology Center
Faculty, Cell, Molecular, and Developmental Biology Program
Tufts Medical Center
Boston, MA

Richard H. Karas, MD, PhD, is the Elisa Kent Mendelsohn Professor of Molecular Medicine at Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston. He is the Chief Scientific Officer for Tufts Medical Center and the Executive Director of the Molecular Cardiology Research Institute. Dr. Karas also serves as the Vice Chairman for Research for the Department of Medicine, the Director of the Preventive Cardiology Center, as well as the Women's Heart Center at Tufts Medical Center.
Before earning his Medical Degree from the Tufts University School of Medicine, Dr Karas received his PhD in Comparative Physiology of Exercise from Harvard University.  He then completed an Internship and Residency in Internal Medicine at the Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston. He also completed a Clinical Fellowship in Cardiology at Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, and a Research Fellowship in Cardiology at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas.
Dr Karas' main areas of research are the effects of steroid sex hormones on vascular cell biology, mouse models of cardiovascular disease, and the effects of lipid-lowering and hormone therapies on vasomotor function.
Dr Karas has received several RO1 research grants from the National Institutes of Health (NIH). He is an author or co-author of over 160 scientific articles, reviews, and book chapters.
Dr Karas has recently served on five committees for the American Heart Association: a National Peer Review Committee (which he chaired for 3 years), the Committee on CVD in Women and other Special Populations (Past-chair), the Founder's Affiliate Research Committee, and the Region II Affiliate Peer Review Committee, and he has just started a term of service on the AHA's National Research Committee where he also chairs the Strategic Planning Subcommittee. At the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, he was a Member of the Review Committee for Research Training Fellowships for Medical Students. He also has been an ad hoc member of peer review committees for the NIH and the Swiss National Science Foundation. He has been an Editorial Board Member for Endocrinology and Atherosclerosis.
Awards and honors bestowed on Dr Karas include the Pfizer Postdoctoral Fellowship in Cardiology, the Young Investigators Award from the American College of Cardiology, and the Basic Science Research Award (runner-up) and the Established Investigator Award from the American Heart Association. Dr. Karas recieved the Kynett Award for the Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease in 2011 and is the 2012 recipient of the Distinguished Faculty Award from the Tufts University School of Medicine.
Dr Karas is a Fellow of the American College of Cardiology and of the American Heart Association. He is a member of the Endocrine Society, the North American Menopause Society, and the American Heart Association's Basic Science Council, Council on Epidemiology and Prevention, and the Clinical Cardiology Council.
1. Evaluate the role of HDL-C in reducing cardiovascular events and rates of atherosclerotic disease progression
2. For Registered Nurses and Nurse Practitioners Only: Provide appropriate care and counsel for patients and their families